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Protected areas (PAs) have dominated biodiversity and conservation strategies worldwide for the past 100 years and are a major land-use category in Africa. After a long history of ‘fortress’ conservation, excluding local communities, ethics and efficacy were called into question, heralding a new age of more inclusive, integrated conservation. 

PAs that cross national borders are common in Africa and influential, international conservation actors, focussing on ecological arguments to secure landscape-level conservation, are currently promoting the transboundary protected area management (TBPAM) governance strategy to establish joint management of PAs across borders.

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